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Department of Anthropology

The mission of the Department of Anthropology is to study the biological and cultural diversity of humankind around the globe. Staff record, study, collect and preserve artifacts representative of world societies and disseminate that knowledge widely through publications, exhibits, lectures, teaching, and by providing opportunities for research and study within the department.

Research in the Department of Anthropology encompasses the entire range of human development, from the earliest traces of our distant ancestors, more than five million years ago, to today’s complex societies. Our researchers explore the effects of humans on the environment and the impacts of the environment on humans—learning how our responses may have shaped our evolution. Our archaeologists seek the origins of domestication and agriculture, they trace environmental change in marine environments through 9,000 year-old marine shells, they chart the arrivals of the first humans on the North American continent, they recreate past environments using agent-based computer modeling, they explore the connections between seventeenth-century Basque whalers and the indigenous people of Quebec. Our ethnologists work with indigenous communities around the world, examining the role of objects in the creation of identity and heritage, and collaborate with communities to document their endangered languages and knowledge systems. Our physical anthropologists study historic period populations, engage in cutting-edge forensic work and seek clues to help modern populations deal with real-time issues by studying the effects of environmental pollutants on the human skeleton.

The Department of Anthropology preserves diverse collections relating to world cultures and the history of anthropological study, and makes them accessible for a wide variety of research, education, and enrichment activities. The Anthropology collections are comprised of three main collections units: Archaeology, Ethnology and Physical Anthropology Collections; National Anthropological Archives; and Human Studies Film Archives.

Anthropology Collections – Archaeology
The archaeology collections consist of more than 2 million objects derived primarily from Smithsonian-sponsored excavations. From the mid-19th century survey of Mississippian mound sites to the massive mid-20th century River Basin Surveys Program to the current Paleo-Indian research program, much of this work has focused on North America. There are, however, significant collections from other world areas, including artifacts from the first excavations at many locations in Central and South America and rare materials from the Old World Paleolithic and Mesolithic.

Among the significant archaeology collections are the Division of Mound Explorations by Cyrus Thomas in the Eastern United States (1800s); the River Basin Survey collections (1946-1969) that include prehistoric and historical materials from the Missouri River Basin and WPA survey’s from the Southeastern United States; as well as the southwest archaeological materials excavated by Neil Judd from Chaco Canyon. Contact: David Rosenthal

Anthropology Collections – Ethnology
The ethnology collections are comprised of over 200,000 objects representing 19th and 20th century cultures from around the globe. Exploring expedition collections document periods of early contact worldwide, while the Bureau of American Ethnology materials represent the results of large-scale, systematic collecting as an integral part of in-depth research in Native American communities by scholars such as John Wesley Powell, James Stevenson, Jesse Fewkes, and James Mooney. The collections include Japanese material collected by Matthew Perry in the 1850s and several thousand items from the Pacific islands assembled by the U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-42. The collection is particularly strong in materials from North America, but there are also significant collections from Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, Central America, Mexico, Oceania, and South America. Contact: David Rosenthal

Anthropology Collections – Physical Anthropology
The physical anthropology collections, which are primarily osteological, are used for studies in biological anthropology, with nearly 33,000 individuals representing populations throughout the world. The majority of the material was recovered during archaeological investigations and represents over a millennium of human experience. The department has been one of the major repositories for federally sponsored archaeological investigations in the United States and the largest portion of the archaeological series comes from North America (approximately 45%). The balance of the collection is from South America (20%), Asia (15%), Africa (10%), and Europe (5%). The most extensive South American samples come from Peru, Argentina and Ecuador. Representative Asian groups include Mongolia, Northern China, and Siberia. There are also samples from Japan and the Pacific Island regions. The African continent is mainly represented by small population groups from various countries, with the exception of an extensive collection of Egyptian skeletons from the Lisht and Kharga oases. Among the sample groups from Europe, the collection of skulls from Bavarian charnel houses is the largest along with an anatomical skull series from Berlin. There are also small representative samples from France, England, and Greece.

The collection includes one of the premier anatomical research collections, the Robert J. Terry collection, consisting of more than 1,700 complete human skeletons from known individuals assembled by Robert J. Terry between 1921 and 1946. Because of the completeness of the information and excellent preservation, it continues to be a fundamental resource for research on bone pathology, skeletal biology, and forensic anthropology. Another important anatomical collection in the Physical Anthropology Division was assembled by Dr. George Huntington (1861-1927) for his research in skeletal anatomy at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. The collection represents over 3,600 individuals of known age, sex, nationality, and cause of death. The collection consists of European immigrants and New York City residents who died in boroughs of the city between the years of 1892-1920. In addition to human skeletal collections, the Department houses over 3,000 face molds and busts made from living or dead individuals representing ethnic groups from around the world. Many of the living masks are of well-known Native Americans who lived in the late 1800s and early 1900s; human paleoanthropology fossil casts, some of which are quite valuable because they are the only remaining representations of specimens that no longer exist; a number of human and animal mummies from various regions of the world; a small collection of wet tissue specimens and a fairly large collection of hair samples from populations throughout the world. Contact: David Hunt

National Anthropological Archives
The National Anthropological Archives collects and preserves historical and contemporary anthropological materials that document the world’s cultures and the history of the discipline. Its collections represent the four fields of anthropology – ethnology, linguistics, archaeology, and physical anthropology – and include manuscripts, field notes, correspondence, photographs, maps, sound recordings, film and video created by Smithsonian anthropologists and other preeminent scholars. The collections include the Smithsonian’s earliest attempts to document North American Indian cultures and the research reports and records of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1879-1964), the U.S. National Museum’s Division of Ethnology, its Division of Physical Anthropology, and River Basin Survey archaeology.

The NAA also maintains the records of the Smithsonian’s Department of Anthropology and of dozens of professional organizations, such as the American Anthropological Association, the American Ethnological Society, and the Society for American Archaeology. Among the earliest ethnographic collections are the diaries of John Wesley Powell, which recount his exploration of the Colorado and study of the region’s Indians, and the pictographic histories of Plains Indians collected by U.S. military officers and BAE ethnographers. Other significant manuscript collections include the ethnographic and linguistic research of Franz Boas, Frances Densmore, Albert S. Gatschet, John Peabody Harrington, and J.N.B. Hewitt, as well as the expedition logs, photographs, and film record produced on Matthew Stirling’s explorations in New Guinea (1926-29). The Smithsonian’s broad collection policy and support of anthropological research for over 150 years have made the NAA and HSFA unparalleled resources for scholars interested in the cultures of North America, Latin America, Oceania, Africa, Asia and Europe. The NAA is the successor to the Archives of the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1965, it joined the collections of the Department of Anthropology and in 1968 was renamed the National Anthropological Archives. Although North American materials remain one of the collection’s strengths, for the past 40 years the NAA has collected and preserved anthropological materials that document cultures from around the world.

All told, the archives curates 9,000 linear feet of manuscripts (about 17 million pages); 400,000 ethnological and archaeological photographs (including some of the earliest images of indigenous people worldwide); 21,000 works of native art (mainly North American, Asian, and Oceanic); and 3,700 sound recordings. Contacts: Gina Rappaport and Adam Minakowski

Human Studies Film Archives
The Human Studies Film Archives was established in 1981 to collect, preserve, and make available for re-search use anthropological film and video records. The collection includes historic and contemporary, edited and unedited, silent and sound, and black- and-white and color film and video documents from around the world. The growing collection totals al-most 34,000 holdings including 15,000 rolls of original preserved film, 5,500 rolls of reference film, 3,100 5-inch sound tapes, 5,670 7-inch sound tapes, 608 snn tapes, 868 cassette tapes and 3,200 videocassettes representing over 8 million feet. These records were created by a diverse group of people including anthropologists, archaeologists, Peace Corps volunteers, missionaries, teachers, commercial and independent film-makers, and travelers. Supplementary materials such as annotations, sound recordings, field notes, photographs, and dissertations, accompany many of the film projects. An active preservation program ensures that the Film Archives’ archival moving image records are not lost due to neglect and deterioration. Contacts: Pam Wintle and Mark White

The Department of Anthropology maintains well-equipped conservation laboratories, a collection processing laboratory, and a section for scientific illustration. The Department has advanced x-ray equipment including a Siemens Somatom CT scanner. The CT scanner is used extensively to study objects in a nondestructive and noninvasive manner. Recently studied objects and specimens include human skeletal remains, mummies, ethnographic objects, forensic objects, and archaeological items. The CT scanner is available to other departments and organizations within the Smithsonian and collaborations related to scanner use include institutions worldwide. Fieldwork equipment includes Ashtec/Magellan GPS (Global Positioning Sys-tem), Topcom electronic total station, and Geonics electromagnetic equipment. Use of the CT scanner and surveying equipment may be offered to researchers and advanced students when available.

Department of Anthropology scientific staff members conduct extensive field research throughout the world including archaeological, ethnological, linguistic, and physical anthropological research in Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Brazil, Canada, China, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, England, Greenland, Greece, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Kuwait, Labrador, Mali, Burma (Myanmar), Mexico, Mongolia, Pakistan, Polynesia, Peru, Syria, Tanzania and Tonga, as well as in various parts of the United States, including California’s Channel Islands and the Chesapeake Bay

Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, the encyclopedic Handbook of North American Indians, Anthro-Notes (a periodical for teachers and anthropologists), the Arctic Studies Newsletter and Contribution to Circumpolar Anthropology.

Education and Outreach
Anthropology Department staff engage in outreach and education with community-based archaeology pro-grams for at-risk indigenous students in Labrador, in working with Mayan cooperatives in Mexico, in providing forensic expertise to federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, in hosting interns and fellows, in giving public lectures, and in working with Native American tribes in various parts of North America. Each summer the Department also hosts the Summer Institute in Museum Anthropology (SIMA), a research training program for anthropology graduate students to gain hands on experience and learn broader and more effective uses of muse-um collections in anthropological research.

The Anthropology Library, officially known as the John Wesley Powell Library of Anthropology (, consists of approximately 85,000 volumes, including more than 400 serials, a large number of microfilm, and smaller collections of CDs, audiocassettes, etc. The core of the collection is the library of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) established by Congress in 1879 within the Smithsonian to conduct “anthropologic researches among the North American Indians”. In 1965, when the BAE was abolished, its library was joined with those of the NMNH Anthropology divisions.
The coverage of today’s library collection is broad, including all four sub-fields of American anthropology, and is research-oriented with an emphasis on material culture. Holdings are especially strong in Native American culture, history, and linguistics for all of North America and the Arctic Rim, with additional materials focusing on indigenous cultural development in Central and South America. The history of anthropology, especially during its early years in the United States, is also well represented. The last several decades have seen significant growth in Asian cultural history. A diverse body of literature supports research in physical anthropology, especially in skeletal biology, paleopathology, forensics, human origins, and human variation and biocultural adaptation. In addition, the Anthropology Library has research materials on the Near East, Oceania, Africa and the New World diaspora.

Programs and Partnerships

Program in Human Ecology and Archaeobiology (
The Program in Human Ecology and Archaeobiology examines the biological and ecological impact of human exploitation on plants and animals, and the reciprocal impact of this relationship on the course of human cultural evolution. The program targets periods of human history beginning with early attempts to domesticate plants and animals, and explores the ecological and cultural implications of the development and intensification of agricultural economies up through the emergence of early urban societies. The geographical focus of the program is global, with special emphases in North, Central, and South America, Western Asia, and Europe. Contact: Torben Rick

Arctic Studies Center
The Arctic Studies Center (ASC) was organized in 1988 to establish programs in Arctic and Subarctic anthropology, archaeology, and biology. The ASC explores cultures, history and environments of the northern part of the globe, and conducts research throughout the circumpolar region. ASC anthropologists specialize in archaeology, ethnology, ethnohistory and aspects of human-environmental interactions from the Ice Age to modern times. The ASC also investigates modern processes of culture contact and transformation from the perspectives of history, contemporary affairs, demography, geography and ecology. Contact: William W. Fitzhugh

Arctic Studies Center – Alaska Office
In 1993 a branch office of the Arctic Studies Program was opened at the Anchorage Museum of History and Art in Anchorage, Alaska. The NMNH cares for many thousands of items that represent the cultural heritage of Alaska’s diverse Native peoples, including clothing, tools, basketry, carvings and ceremonial art. The Alaska Office was opened to make these resources more accessible to Alaskan scholars, artists, educators, students and the general public. In addition to exhibitions and field studies, the Alaska office works with the University of Alaska and with Alaskan museums and culture centers to offer lectures, workshops and courses in cultural research and museum skills. Contact: Aron L. Crowell

Asian Cultural History Program
Since 1985, the Asian Cultural History Program has carried out research on the cultural and ecological history of Asia’s diverse peoples and has worked to preserve and make more accessible existing Smithsonian resources for the study and appreciation of Asian heritage. Projects are carried out in collaboration with Asian counterpart institutions. Contact: Paul M. Taylor

Human Origins Program
The Human Origins Program was established in 1985 to investigate the evolution, paleoecology, and behavior of early humans. The program is based on field excavation of hominin sites in Africa and Asia, and seeks to test the effects of ancient environmental variation on hominin activities and geographic distribution. Through inter-national collaboration, data on paleontological and archaeological sites worldwide are brought together to better understand the ecological factors involved in human evolution. An excellent collection of hominid fossil casts and Paleolithic artifacts are maintained for study. Contact: Richard Potts

Paleo-Indian Program
The PaleoIndian/Paleoecology Program investigates the arrival, dispersal and development of the earliest human groups in the Americas within the context of global and local environmental change. Established in 1972, the program is multi-disciplinary in scope, involving teams of scholars from institutions around the world. Intern-ships, field training, and public programs are integral components of the research program. Current projects focus on the Rocky Mountains, northwestern Alaska, and northern Spain. The Paleo-Indian collections represent one of the premier education and research collections of Paleo-Indian artifacts, archival records and comparative study casts in North America. The collection includes approximately 10,000 objects of Paleo-Indian stone tools (those roughly older than 10,000 years), mainly from North America, used by ice age hunters. The tools include drills, scrapers, gravers, projectile points and atlatl from the Clovis and Folsom Period. Amid the most interesting and famous, the collection includes a cast set of pre-Clovis tools from the Miles Point and Jefferson Island sites from the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay. Contact: Dennis J. Stanford

Repatriation Office
The Repatriation Office was established in 1991 in response to the National Museum of the American Indian Act. This legislation mandates that the Smithsonian inventory its Native American and Hawaiian collections for human remains, including certain categories of objects, and return them to culturally affiliated groups. Staff members document the physical remains and objects in order to assess their origin, identity and affiliation, and provide recommendations for action. An amendment to the NMAI Act in 1996 broadened the repatriation mandate to include sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony (as defined in the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act passed in 1990). Much of the Native American material now held by the museum was collected as a part of archaeological excavations or anthropological expeditions around the U.S. Remains and objects were also transferred to the Smithsonian from other institutions, including the former U.S. Army Medical Museum. A small number of human remains were collected by private individuals, and large numbers of ethnographic objects were acquired from Native people throughout the 19th and 20th centuries by private collectors and Smithsonian anthropologists. To date, over 6,000 sets of remains have been offered for repatriation, and of these 4,400 have been repatriated. Contact: William T. Billeck

Research Staff

ARNOLDI, Mary Jo, Curator of African Ethnology. B.F.A. (1970) Bowling Green State University; M.A. (1975) Michigan State University; Ph.D. (1983) Indiana University. Research specialties: African ethnography with emphasis on visual, material, and performing arts; post-colonial public culture, museum history and museology.

BELL, Joshua A., Curator of Globalization and Director, Recovering Voices Program. B.A. (1992) Brown University; M.Phil (1998), D.Phil (2006) Oxford University. Research specialties: shifting local and global network of relationships between persons, artifacts and the environment; materiality, transforming political economies and ecologies, cultural and intellectual property, indigenous knowledge systems, history and the role of objects.

BISHOP, Ronald, Curator of Mexican and Central American Archaeology. B.A. (1965) San Francisco State University; Ph.D. (1975) Southern Illinois University. Research specialties: Archaeology of Meso and Central America; ancient materials characterization; exchange systems; quantitative methods.

FITZHUGH, William W., Senior Scientist, Curator of North American Archaeology and Director, Arctic Studies Center; B.A. (1964) Dart-mouth College; M.A. (1967), Ph.D. (1970) Harvard University. Research specialties: Archeology and ethnology of northern Canada and United States, circumpolar regions, and Mongolia; Arctic material culture; Arctic social science policy; cultural ecology of the North; ethnographic and prehistoric maritime adaptations; culture and climatology.

ISAAC, Gwyneira, Curator of North American Indigenous Culture. BFA (1990) University of Michigan; M.Phil (1995) Oxford University; Ph.D. (2000) Oxford University. Research specialties: Anthropology, Zuni and Southwest Pueblos, knowledge systems, material culture, photography.

KAEPPLER, Adrienne L., Curator of Oceanic Ethnology. B.A. (1959), M.A. (1961), Ph.D. (1967) University of Hawaii. Research specialties: Social anthropology, material culture, art, ethnohistory, ethnoscience of Polynesia and Micronesia, and aesthetics and systems of knowledge.

KRUPNIK, Igor I., Curator of Circumpolar Ethnology. M.A. (1973) University of Moscow; Ph.D. (1977) Moscow Institute of Ethnography; Ph.D. (1990) Institute of Ecology and Morphology, Moscow. Research specialties: Arctic ethnology, indigenous knowledge, social systems, modern cultures; Arctic environment and climate change; cultural heritage and heritage preservation; history of Arctic/North Pacific ethnological research.

MERRILL, William L., Curator of Latin American Ethnology. B.A. (1972) University of North Carolina; M.A. (1975), Ph.D. (1981) University of Michigan. Research specialties: Ethnology with an emphasis on world view, religion, ethnobiology and ethnohistory of North American Indians, particularly Indian groups of western North America and the relationships between material and nonmaterial aspects of culture.

OWSLEY, Douglas W., Curator of Physical Anthropology. B.A. (1973) University of Wyoming; M.A. (1975), Ph.D. (1978) University of Tennessee. Research specialties: skeletal biology; forensic anthropology; historic populations in North America; North American Plains Indians; Polynesia.

PEREZ BAEZ, Gabriela, Curator of Linguistics. BFA (1997) SUNY; M.A. (2005) SUNY; Ph.D. (2009) University of Buffalo. Research specialties: Zapotec languages, Mesoamerican languages, language documentation, lexicography, semantics, language maintenance, language endangerment.

POTTS, Richard, Curator of Physical Anthropology, Peter Buck Chair of Human Origins Director. B.A. (1975) Temple University; Ph.D. (1982) Harvard University. Research specialties: Paleoecology and evolution of early hominids; excavation and analysis of hominid sites (late Miocene through Pleistocene).

RICK, Torben, Chair of Anthropology and Curator of North American Archaeology and Director, Program in Human Ecology and Archaeobiology. B.A. (1997) University of California, Santa Barbara; M.S. (1999) University of Oregon; Ph.D. (2004) University of Oregon. Research specialties: Interactions of ancient people with coastal and terrestrial ecosystems.

ROGERS, J. Daniel, Curator of North American Archaeology. B.A. (1976); M.A. (1982) University of Oklahoma; Ph.D. (1987) University of Chicago. Research specialties: Great Plains, Southeastern U.S., Mexico, Mongolia archaeology and ethnohistory, development of empires, culture contact.

SHOLTS, Sabrina. Curator of Physical Anthropology.  B.A. (2003)  University of Chicago;      M.A. (2005) University of Chicago; M.A. (2008) University of California, Santa Barbara; Ph.D. (2010) University of California, Santa Barbara. Research specialties:  Integrative approaches with human ecology, biochemistry, and toxicology and in particular, the effects of environmental pollutants on human skeletal morphology.

SMITH, Bruce D., Senior Scientist and Curator of North American Archaeology; Co-Director, Program in Human Ecology and Archaeobiology. B.A. (1968), M.A. (1971), Ph.D. (1973) University of Michigan. Research specialties: Origins of agriculture; plant and animal domestication; archaeology of North America; and the development of ranked societies.

STANFORD, Dennis J., Curator of Paleo-Indian Archaeology. B.A. (1965) University of Wyoming; Ph.D. (1972) University of New Mexico. Research specialties: Paleo-Indian paleo-ecology and New World origins, circumpolar Paleolithic archaeology.

TAYLOR, Paul Michael, Curator of European, Near Eastern, and Asian Ethnology and Head, Asian Cultural History Program. B.A. (1975) University of California; M.Phil. (1977), Ph.D. (1980) Yale University. Research specialties: Cultural anthropology and linguistics of Southeast Asia; ethnobiology; kinship and social organization; art and material culture; ecological anthropology; ethnography and languages of Indonesia, especially Maluku and Irian Jaya; digital museums.

UBELAKER, Douglas H., Senior Scientist and Curator of Physical Anthropology. B.A. (1968), Ph.D. (1973) University of Kansas. Research specialties: New World human skeletal biology; and forensic anthropology.

ZEDER, Melinda A., Senior Scientist and Curator of Old World Achaeology, Co-Director, Program in Human Ecology and Archaeobiology. A.B. (1975), M.A. (1978), Ph.D. (1985) University of Michigan. Research specialties: Animal domestication; origins of food production, environmental impact of early agro-pastoral economies in the Near East, subsistence resources in emerging complex societies, Near Eastern archaeology, zooarchaeology.

Affiliated Research Staff

ARCHAMBAULT, Joallyn, Head, American Indian Program. B.A. (1970), M.A. (1971), Ph.D. (1984) University of California, Berkeley. Research specialties: North American Indian ethnology with emphasis on the Plains and the Southwest; art and material culture; political clientelism; ethnic group relations; museological history of exhibits as relates to American Indians.

BILLECK, William, Program Manager, Repatriation Office. B.A. (1976) Queens College; M.S. (1980) University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Ph.D. (1993) University of Missouri. Research specialties: Repatriation, North American Archaeology, Historic Archaeology, Glass Trade Bead Studies.

BLACKMAN, James, Emeritus Curator of Archaeology. B.A. (1965), M.S. (1971) Miami University; Ph.D. (1975) Ohio State University. Research specialties: Archaeological materials characterization; chemical characterization by INAA; exchange systems; production technology and organization, Old World, Middle East, Spanish Colonial Americas

CROWELL, Aron, Alaska Director, Arctic Studies Center. M.A. (1988) George Washington University; Ph.D. (1994) University of California, Berkeley. Research specialties: Arctic archaeology and anthropology, museum anthropology.

FROHLICH, Bruno, Statistician Emeritus, Physical Anthropology. B.A. (1973) University of Copenhagen; M.S. (1976), Ph.D. (1979) University of Connecticut. Research specialties: Middle East, Central Asia, Sub-Arctic, New England; Skeletal biology, forensic sciences and medicine, remote sensing, medical imaging (CT), GIS, GPS, surveying, non-destructive analytical methods.

GODDARD, Ives, Senior Linguist Emeritus. A.B. (1963) Harvard College; Ph.D. (1969) Harvard University. Research specialties: Linguistics and North America; general linguistics including descriptive, historical, and theoretical; textual analysis, discourse, philology; Algonquian linguistics and ethnohistory.

GREENE, Candace S., Ethnologist. B.A. (1971) University of Texas; M.A. (1976) Brown University, Ph.D. (1985) University of Oklahoma. Research specialties: Native North American art, material culture, and ethnology, especially Plains Indian drawings; museum anthropology; issues in collection-based research.

HOMIAK, John P., Director, National Anthropological Archives. B.A. (1969) Franklin and Marshall College; M.A. (1975) U.S. International University; Ph.D. (1985) Brandeis University. Research specialties: Caribbean ethnology, diaspora studies, Rastafari, visual anthropology and ethnographic film.

HUNT, David R., Physical Anthropology Collections Manager. B.A. (1980) University of Illinois; M.A. (1983), Ph.D. (1989) University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Research specialties: Human variation, skeletal biology, forensic anthropology, human mummies of the world.

LORING, Stephen, Arctic Archaeologist. B.A. (1973) Goddard College; M.A. (1984), Ph.D. (1991) University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Research specialties: Arctic and sub-Arctic ethnohistory and archaeology; Labrador; public policy in the circumpolar north; repatriation philosophy, community archaeology, indigenous property rights.

POBINER, Briana, Research Scientist and Education Specialist. B.A. (1997) Bryn Mawr College; M.A. (2002) Rutgers University; Ph.D. (2007) Rutgers University. Research specialties: hominin-carnivore interactions.

PIPERNO, Dolores R., Senior Scientist Emeritus, Program in Human Ecology and Archaeobiology. B.A. (1971) Rutgers University; M.A. (1979), Ph.D. (1983) Temple University. Research specialties: Tropical archaeology, archaeobotany, and paleoecology; agricultural origins; prehistoric human ecology.

WALSH, Jane M., Museum Specialist Emeritus, MesoAmerican Archaeology. B.A. (1968), M.A. (1971) University of the Americas; Ph.D. (1993) Catholic University of America. Research specialties: Mesoamerican archaeology and ethnohistory, in particular the contact period in the central Valley of Mexico; 19th century Mexican archaeological and ethnographic collections; U.S. Exploring Expedition collection.